Diabetes Type 2 – Definition, Causes, Risk factors, Symptom, Diagnosis, Diet, Treatment, and Prevention

(diabetes mellitus type 2, insulin resistant diabetes, diabetes, type 2)

What is Diabetes Type 2

Glucose is a type of sugar. It comes from food and also occurs in the liver. Glucose travels throughout the body through the blood. It passes from the blood to the cells with the help of a hormone called “insulin”. Once the glucose enters the cells, it can be used as energy.

Diabetes is a condition that makes it difficult for the body to use glucose. This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood. Also, it means that the body does not receive enough energy. Type 2 diabetes is one of the types of diabetes and is the most frequent.

Blood glucose levels can be controlled through medications, lifestyle changes and patient control.

What are Causes of Diabetes Type 2

Typically, type 2 diabetes arises from a combination of factors. One of the factors is that the body begins to produce less insulin. The second factor is that the organism becomes resistant to insulin. This means that there is insulin in the body, but it can not be used effectively. Insulin resistance is usually related to excess body fat.

What are Risk factors of Diabetes Type 2

Type 2 diabetes is more common in people 45 and older. It is also common in younger people who suffer from obesity and who belong to ethnic groups at risk. Other factors that increase your chances of getting type 2 diabetes include the following:

  • Prediabetes: lower glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose.
  • Metabolic syndrome: a condition characterized by high levels of cholesterol and glycemia, high blood pressure and abdominal obesity
  • Excess weight or obesity, especially abdominal obesity
  • Lack of exercise
  • Poor diet: high consumption of processed meats, fats, foods and beverages with sugar and calories
  • Family history of type 2 diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • History of cardiovascular disease
  • Depression
  • History of gestational diabetes or having given birth to a baby who weighed more than 4 kg at birth
  • Endocrine disorders, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, acromegaly, polycystic ovary syndrome, pheochromocytoma, or glucagonoma
  • Conditions related to insulin resistance, such as lanthantosis pigmentosa
  • Some medications, such as glucocorticoids or thiazides
  • Belonging to certain ethnic groups, such as African-Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Latin Americans,
  • Asian Americans, or Pacific Islanders

What are Symptom of Type 2 Diabetes

You may have diabetes for years before you start having symptoms. Symptoms due to high blood sugar include the following:

  • Increase in urine
  • Excessive thirst
  • Hungry
  • Fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Irritability
  • Recurrent or frequent infections
  • Poor healing of wounds
  • Feeling of numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Problems in the gums
  • Itch
  • Difficulty having an erection

Diagnosis of Diabetes Type 2

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. It will also ask about your family history. You will have a physical exam.

The diagnosis is based on the results of blood tests. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that you be diagnosed if you have any of the following:

  1. Symptoms of diabetes and a random blood test that reveals a blood sugar level greater than or equal to 200 mg / dl (11.1 mmol / l)
  2. Fasting blood glucose test, performed after a fast of 8 hours or more, revealing glycemic levels greater than or equal to 126 mg / dl (7 mmol / l) on two different days
  3. Glucose tolerance test, glucose measurement two hours after having consumed glucose that reveals glucose levels greater than or equal to 200 mg / dl (11.1 mmol / l)
  4. HbA1c level of 6.5% or higher, which indicates poor control of blood sugar during the last two to four months
    mg / dl = milligrams per deciliter of blood; mmol / l = millimole per liter of blood

What is Treatment of Diabetes Type 2

The treatment aims to:

  1. Maintain blood sugar at as normal levels as possible
  2. Prevent or delay complications
  3. Control other conditions, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol

Best Diet for Diabetes Type 2

Food and beverages have a direct effect on the blood glucose level. Eating healthy foods can help control your blood sugar level. It also benefits your general health status. Some basic tips include the following:

  1. Follow a balanced meal plan. Carbohydrates, proteins and fats should be included.
  2. Be aware of the proper size of the portions. Measure the food to understand the ideal serving size.
  3. Do not skip meals. Plan meals and snacks throughout the day. If you eat throughout the day you can avoid significant changes in glucose levels.
  4. Eat plenty of vegetables and fiber.
  5. Limit the amount of fat (especially saturated fat and trans fat) in foods.
  6. Eat moderate amounts of protein and semi-skim milk products.
  7. Limit foods that have a high concentration of sugar carefully.
  8. Keep a record of the foods you eat. Share the record with the nutritionist or doctor. This helps create an effective meal plan.
Also Read:  Depression - Causes, Risk factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Weightloss helps Diabetes Type 2

If you are overweight, losing weight helps your body respond better to insulin. Talk to your doctor about a healthy weight goal. You and the nutritionist or doctor can make a safe meal plan for you.

These options can help you lose weight:

  • Use a plate that helps you control portions
  • Use a prepared meal plan
  • Consume a Mediterranean diet

Best Exercise for Diabetes Type 2

Physical activity can achieve the following:

  • Make the body more sensitive to insulin
  • Help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight
  • Reduce the levels of fat in the blood
  • Aerobic exercise is an activity that increases the heart rate. Resistance training helps increase muscle strength.
  • Both types of exercise help improve long-term glucose control. Frequent exercise can help reduce the risk of heart disease.

Talk to your doctor about an activity plan. Ask him about the precautions he should take.

Medicines for Diabetes Type 2

Some medications help control blood sugar levels.

Medications that are administered orally may include the following:

  • Biguanides reduce the amount of glucose produced by the body.
  • The sulfonylureas cause the pancreas to produce more insulin.
  • Insulin sensitizers help the body to better use insulin.
  • Starch blockers reduce the amount of glucose that is absorbed in the blood.
  • Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) increase the elimination of glucose through the urine.

Bile acid binders

Some medications must be given by injection, such as the following:

  • The incretin mimics stimulate the pancreas to produce insulin and decrease appetite, which can promote weight loss.
  • Amylin analogs replace a protein in the pancreas that is low in people with type 2 diabetes.


Insulin may be necessary in the following cases:

  • If the body does not produce enough insulin
  • If blood glucose levels can not be controlled with changes in lifestyle and medications
  • Insulin is given by injection. There is a rapid-acting inhalation insulin that can be used by certain people.

Blood glucose tests

You can check your blood glucose level with a blood glucose meter. Controlling blood glucose levels during the day can help keep you on track. It also helps the doctor determine if the treatment works. Keeping track of blood sugar levels is especially important if you take insulin.

Testing may not be needed regularly if diabetes is under control and insulin is not given. Talk to your doctor before interrupting blood sugar control.

An HbA1c test can also be done in the doctor's office. This is a measure of glycemic control over an extended period. Doctors advise that most people maintain HbA1c levels below 7%. Your exact ideal value may be different. Keeping the HbA1c level within the ideal value can help decrease the chances of complications.


Depression can hinder your recovery and expose you to the risk of other complications. If you have feelings of sadness and hopelessness and have felt disinterested in your favorite activities for at least two weeks, you should call your doctor. Depression is treatable. The doctor can refer you for therapy to help you better manage depression and diabetes.

How to reduce the risk of complications

Over an extended period, high blood glucose levels can damage vital organs. Kidneys, eyes and nerves are the most affected. Diabetes can also increase the risk of heart disease.

Maintaining the ideal value of blood glucose levels is the first step to reduce the risk of these complications. Other steps:

  1. Take good care of your feet. Be alert for ulcers or irritated areas. Keep feet dry and clean.
  2. Have a vision check once a year.
  3. No Smoking. If you do, look for programs or products that help you stop smoking.
  4. Control your moods and be alert to persistent symptoms of depression.
  5. Plan visits to the doctor according to the indications.

How to Prevention Diabetes Type 2

To reduce the chances of suffering from type 2 diabetes:

  1. Perform physical activity regularly.
  2. Maintain a healthy weight
  3. Drink alcohol in moderation (2 glasses per day for men and one glass per day for women)
  4. Eat a properly balanced diet
  5. Get enough fiber.
  6. Avoid fatty foods.
  7. Limit sugar intake.
  8. Eat more green leafy vegetables.
  9. Eat whole fruits, especially apples, grapes and cranberries.

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