Ulcerative Colitis – Causes, Risk factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

(UC; colitis, ulcerative)

What is Ulcerative Colitis (Definition)

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory, severe and chronic intestinal disease. The Causes of Ulcerative Colitis include:

  • Inflammation
  • Ulcers
  • Bleeding in the wall of the colon and rectum
  • Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative Colitis  Causes

The cause of ulcerative colitis is not known. Intestinal inflammatory diseases (UC and Crohn's disease) appear to be transmitted in certain families. Some researchers believe that a virus or bacteria cause an exaggerated reaction of the immune system and cause damage to the colon and rectum.

Ulcerative Colitis Risk factors

The only risk factor is having a family member with inflammatory bowel disease.

Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms

These risk factors increase your chances of developing UC: Tell the doctor if you have any of the following risk factors:

  • Diarrhea
  • Cramps and abdominal pain
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Anemia
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Nausea
  • Fever

Ulcerative Colitis Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam.

Tests may include:

  • Blood test
  • Stool test
  • Opaque enema: injection of fluid into the rectum to get the colon to be seen on an x-ray and allow the doctor to detect abnormal spots on it
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy: insertion of a thin tube with light in the rectum to examine the rectum and lower part of the colon
  • Colonoscopy: insertion of a thin tube with light through the rectum and into the colon to examine the wall of the colon
  • Biopsy: extraction of a sample of colonic tissue for evaluation (can be performed as part of a flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy)

Ulcerative Colitis Treatment

Avoid foods that cause symptoms

  • Dairy foods (due to lactose intolerance)
  • Highly spicy foods
  • Meals with high content Fiber

Talk to the doctor to learn more about foods you should avoid, since they may vary from one person to another.

Medications with aminosalicylate

  • Sulfasalazine
  • Mesalazina
  • Olsalazina
  • Balsalazide disodium
  • Steroid antiinflammatories
  • Prednisone
  • Methylprednisolone
  • Budesonide (in the form of enema)

Immune modification drugs

  • Azatioprine
  • Mercaptopurine-6 ​​
  • Ciclosporin
  • Biological agents
  • Infliximab

Ulcerative Colitis Surgery

Medications may not cure very serious UC. In some cases, your doctor may suggest performing surgery. This may involve the removal of part or all of the colon. Also, surgery may be done because UC increases your risk of developing colon cancer.

Over time, colitis that is not treated or does not respond to treatment can cause:

  • Arthritis
  • Inflammation of eyes
  • Liver disease
  • Kidney stones
  • Skin rash
  • Osteoporosis
  • Colon cancer

If you are diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, follow doctor's instructions.

Ulcerative Colitis Prevention

There are no general guidelines to prevent ulcerative colitis.\

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